This article is the continuation of my previous article on causes of food poisoning. In this article we will discuss some preventive measures to avoid food poisoning. By and large, the food poisoning will be settled in approximately forty-eight hours.
In case your indications persist, you ought to counsel a doctor for appropriate treatment of food poisoning. There are a few kinds including parasitical poisoning that can keep going for longer periods, yet you may, in any case, need to visit a specialist.
How do germs grow in the food that may cause food poisoning?
Germs flourish best when four conditions are ideal:
Bacteria that are responsible for food poisoning develop and multiply their number in quickest possible time at the temperature of the human body (37° C). Above and underneath the temperature, the rate of development and multiplication decreases.
Yet at the same time, the rate of growth is genuinely fast at around 30° C – which would be the room temperature in a poorly ventilated kitchen during the days of summers.
At the boiling water temperature, i.e. 100° C, bacteria are killed in maybe a couple of minutes (however spores are most certainly not).
At low temperatures, for example, in the refrigerator, they remain dormant. However, they begin duplicating again once the nourishment comes out for defrosting or warming.
- The food type
Germs increase quickly in those foods which have a high protein and dampness content, for example, meat, poultry, dairy items, flavors and sauces.
Protein and dampness nourish microorganisms and go about as great culture media. In the laboratories, most microorganisms grow over a blood or egg-containing medium.
Dehydrated items, for example, milk powders, don’t permit the development of microscopic organisms, yet the microorganisms stay dormant until the point that the powders are reconstituted.
Along these lines, reconstituted powder milk, e.g., must be put away in the fridge when water is added to it.
- The time factor
If conditions are helpful, microorganisms divide their number into two in every 20 minutes. Subsequently, if food is allowed to remain in the conditions ideal for bacterial development, there are greater chances of food to be contaminated.
How can we prevent food poisoning?
The standard procedure is to keep up strict cleanliness at all the angles at which you handle the food.
Personal cleanliness of the handler of the food
- Germs stick to the skin surface and hold on in hair follicles, in skin pores, or in fissure and injuries caused by breaking in the skin.
The hands ought to be washed with a lot of cleanser and water, ideally warm. A disinfectant may likewise be used as an additional precautionary measure.
- Nails ought to be short, unchipped and, ideally, unvarnished (if varnished, the varnish must not be chipped.)
- Wet hands contain a greater number of microorganisms than dry hands. Always use clean towels to dry them. In the event that you can manage the cost of an electrically-worked hand drier, that is much better.
- The nourishment handler should expel all rings and highly engraved jewellery from his/her hands.
- If any cut, wound, blister or boil is on the hand, a colorful waterproof dressing ought to be applied over it so that if it accidentally falls into the sustenance, it can be seen easily and you can discard the food on time.
- It is critical to wash hands after coming back to the toilet, cleaning out your nose, dealing with uncooked meat, poultry or polluted sustenance, and so on.
- The nourishment handler ought not to smoke in the kitchen and should cough or sneeze into a tissue which should then be disposed of.
- Cover hair under a net or cotton cap.
- Long sleeves ought to be moved up or safely affixed at the wrists with so that sleeves don’t plunge into the nourishment.
- Try to wear full-length apron while cooking and washing dishes.
- During sickness, the nasal and throat carriage of microbes is expanded. So, debilitated people and the individuals who have experienced recently food poisoning, vomiting and diarrhea (regardless of whether they are obviously sound and healthy now) should not be permitted into the kitchen.
Cleanliness in the Preparation, Cooking and Storage of sustenance
- Thaw every frozen nourishment completely before cooking food. In case you don’t, the crystals of ice at the centre point of the nourishment keep the temperature that achieves the inside at the cooking time from being adequately high to kill the microbes there.
In the meantime, this temperature level will be ideal for bacterial augmentation.
- Once the food is defrosted, do not freeze it again. Each time it defrosts, it achieves a temperature that is helpful for bacterial development.
- Cook sustenance completely at one go. Never do it in two phases – microbes stay alive in mostly cooked nourishments and on cooling they increase and survive directly through the following period of fractional cooking.
- Never keep the nourishment warm (as in dishes) because these give the ideal temperature to bacterial augmentation.
- Never re-warm the sustenance more than once. Once more, microscopic organisms get an opportunity to duplicate when the nourishment has gone from hot to warm.
On the off chance that re-warming is totally vital, the sustenance ought to be secured and cooled quickly in the wake of cooking and put away in the fridge until the point when it is prepared to be re-warmed.
To speed cooling, partition up the sustenance into a few holders or cut up bigger chunks into smaller bits.
- Quick, high-temperature cooking is the best. The customary routine with regards to moderate cooking in open pots expands the danger of food poisoning.
- As eggs, particular eggs of ducks, are a known hazard for salmonella poisoning. Softly cooked uncooked dishes, for example, fried eggs, omelette and poached eggs ought to ideally be avoided.
More secure alternatives are hard-boiled eggs, fried eggs well on the two sides or eggs utilized as a part of baking items, for example, cakes and puddings, which require cooking temperatures sufficiently high to decimate the germs.
- Cook the foods at the best possible temperatures. Meat ought to be cooked no less than 160° degrees.
Red meat is completely cooked when it becomes brown or grey from inside. Poultry is done when the juices turn out to be clear. Fish, which cooks rapidly can be flaked easily with a fork when it is done completely.
- Serve sustenance as quickly as time permits after cooking. Try not to give it a chance to sit out for over two hours at room temperature.
In case, you are serving buffet-style, keep frosty sustenance in the fridge, hot nourishment over burners. Take out just little parts at once so the rest of remaining hot or icy in the kitchen until required.
- As far as it is possible, avoid purchasing prepared foods since you have no assurance of the cleanliness kept up in the cooking of such foods.
In the event that you should purchase such products, try to go for frozen food to warm and hot foods, since they give less chance to bacterial duplication.
- Don’t purchase sustenance in the containers that are damaged. Avoid cans, jars and glass bottles that have cracks, dents or bulged lids. A damaged holder may enable microscopic organisms to get inside.
- Try to use very acidic canned foods within 1 year, for example, tomato and products of apple. Other canned products, for example, canned meat, poultry, stews, pasta items, potatoes and peas can be stored up to 2 to 5 years
- There are a few explanations behind this. To start with, when acidic foodstuffs are pressed in metal compartments, the acid in them breaks up the metal which is assimilated into the substance of the tin/can, influencing their flavor and surface, in this manner causing decay.
- Eventually, meats and other solid foods like pasta and potatoes can be stored easily. It is possible because, at the time of preparing, it is workable for them to withstands the length and sort of temperature required for total disinfection – 121° C, for 20 minutes at 15 pounds of pressure of steam.
Be that as it may, juicy foods like apples, tomatoes and mangoes can’t withstand such processing and handling without having their flavor and surface adjusted.
In this way, they are warmed at a lower temperature, under reduced pressure, for a longer time. In view of the incomplete disinfection, the odds of decay in such foods are relatively higher.
- Preferably, all canned sustenance ought to be put away in the fridge, particularly in the event that you plan to utilize it over a prolonged period.
Regardless, don’t utilize it after the expiry date. All opened canned nourishment ought to be stored as freshly cooked-sustenance.
- Do not put hot foods straightforwardly into the refrigerator. Aside from harming the cooling coils, this can promote the development of specific germs and molds.
- The door of fridge ought to be kept closed as much as possible. The fridge ought to likewise be routinely defrosted to expel abundance ice around the cooling curls which reduce is proficiency.
Cleanliness in the kitchen
- The kitchen ought to be sufficiently roomy that is easy to clean. Hardware ought to be moveable or, on account of the fridge, for instance, ought to be put where it is conceivable to clean its back, sides and under-surface.
- The kitchen ought to be given a large window and ventilator, if conceivable with an exhaust fan.
- The window ought to be secured with thin wire net to avoid house-flies and various nuisances.
- Every kitchen ought to have a round-cornered dustbin, ideally with paddle-worked top, and it ought to never be permitted to overspill.
- Pick up forks, knives and spoons by their handles, glasses by their stems and plates by their edges. Dispose of any chipped plate or glass and any damaged utensils or crockery because even effective washing may not dispose of the germs harbored in cleft and splits.
- Rat and mice convey microbes in their feet and excretory wastes. Since they breed in warm and dull corners, the kitchen premises ought to be kept in decent shape without any openings, or damaged pipes or depletes. Store-spaces ought to be cleaned routinely.
- Cockroaches ordinarily take cover behind stoves and cooking ranges, water funnels, and refrigerators. They can be killed by insecticides.