Leukemia: Causes, Kinds, Treatment And Survival Rate

Leukemia: Causes, Kinds, Treatment And Survival Rate

Leukemia is a sickness that is thought to be dangerous and a threat to life. It requires quick intercession when found to expand the odds of recuperating through particular therapy and treatment.

Leukemia is primarily a kind of tumor of the bone marrow and blood, caused by inefficient activity at cellular level. The illness can be of various structures, as indicated by the kinds of the cells of blood that are the reason for developing leukemia.

Additionally, if leukemia is overgrowing, it is called acute leukemia, while if the illness is growing gradually, it is known as chronic leukemia.

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Causes of leukemia

The immediate leukemia causes are yet not known. Medical science can’t set up the particular leukemia causes. In any case, a robust association between certain hereditary elements and the advancement of the infection has been discovered.

Due to genetic failure, leukemia happens that causes the uncontrolled generation of deficient and partially developed blood cells. Likewise, leukemia has an inherited character, enabling the transmission of hereditary inclinations to ailment starting from one generation to another.

As many variables are known to add to the advancement of leukemia, we cannot alone consider them the causes of leukemia.

Regardless of the way that facts and figures show a higher rate of the malady in individuals that are presented to some natural elements of hazard, leukemia doesn’t appear to be caused by either of them specifically.

Among the natural factors that are believed to be leukemia causes, here are probably the most likely ones:

  • Smoking

Smoking is thought to expand the odds of being influenced by leukemia.

Despite the fact that statistical data demonstrate that around 20 percent of the acute type of leukemia cases are identified with smoking, leukemia likewise attacks at individuals that don’t smoke and accordingly it can’t be viewed as a leukemia cause on itself.

  • Exposure to radiation for long term

Radiation is considered to encourage the advancement of leukemia. It is trusted that presentation and exposure to X-rays can be the cause of leukemia.

  • Continued exposure to benzene

As per recent research, this is a central point of hazard in a few types of leukemia, for example, myelogenous leukemia.

  • Chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer

Previously done treatments for tumor and chemotherapy are known to encourage the event and advancement of leukemia and can be viewed as likely leukemia causes.

Within a couple of years right after the complete treatment of chemotherapy and different medicines for specific types of malignancy, the vast majority can have leukemia.

Genetic factors that play their role in the development of leukemia

Among the hereditary components that are thought to be leukemia causes, the following ones are believed to be the most imperative:

  • Chromosomal aberrations

Some uncommon inherited disorders are known to add to leukemia causes.

  • Genetic problems in immune system

A feeble immunity framework is probably going to encourage the event of leukemia and in this manner can be viewed as a leukemia cause.

  • Down syndrome

Kids that are born with this disorder have a high danger of creating an acute type of leukemia.

There are other conceivable leukemia causes, but these are the most well-known components that are thought to be interrelated with leukemia. While some of them can be forestalled, others live inside the genes so can’t be corrected in recent times too.

Kinds of leukemia

As indicated by their capacities and structure, three distinct sorts of cells make the blood that are:

  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Platelets

Through the procedure of hematopoiesis, these three kinds of blood cells are produced from a type of particular platelet called stem cell.

These stem cells divide and experience a few phases of development eventually to turn into a mature blood cell, with a specific and unique capabilities in the body.

The procedure through which an immature stem cell develops into a mature blood cell happens inside the bone marrow.

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As indicated by the speed of advancement and the tenacity of the turmoil, there are two kinds of leukemia:

  • Acute leukemia
  • Chronic leukemia

Acute leukemia

Specific to the acute leukemia is the failure of stem cells to achieve the form of maturity. Stem cells are the immature cells that can be found in the bone marrow. These naive cells tend to divide continuously, and they start to store in the circulation system.

Acute leukemia grows quickly, and individuals who experience the ill effects of it require prompt treatment and particular treatment. In case, if it went ignored or mistreated, acute leukemia causes the death of influenced patients within a couple of months.

While certain types of acute leukemia are generally effectively treated, different structures don’t react well to the particular treatment.

Chronic leukemia

The typical feature of the chronic form of leukemia is that the infected cells typically originate from more matured cells, however, by and large, they are not produced ordinarily.

The leukemia cells have more extended periods of life, and they have a tendency to stay and store inside the circulatory system.

However, ordinary individuals have about 5000 and 10000 white platelets in their body, individuals who experience the ill effects of chronic leukemia may have more than 100000.

Lymphocytic and myelogenous kinds of leukemia are produced from various sorts of cells:

  • The type of lymphocytic leukemia creates from cells called lymphoblasts or lymphocytes in the spongious tissue of the bones.
  • The myelogenous kind of leukemia also known as myeloid and myelocytic leukemia creates from myeloid cells.

So, in light of the kinds of cells associated with the advancement of leukemia and by the rate of cell division particular to each type of the sickness, the primary kinds of leukemia are:

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Rare kinds of leukemia

Notwithstanding the basic types of chronic leukemia, there are likewise some uncommon and rare kinds too like:

  • Hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Simply like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia has a moderate advancement.

The cells of hairy cell leukemia are not quite the same as other sick cells primarily from their perspective. Hairy cell leukemia does not, as a rule, react well to treatment.

  • Prolymphocytic leukemia is an extraordinarily uncommon and surprising type of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • A few malignancies, called lymphomas, are caused by abnormal cells of blood that are available in the nodes of lymph, liver, spleen or different organs.

These specific sorts of tumor don’t happen at the levels of the bone marrow and have an advancement that isn’t specific to most types of lymphocytic leukemia.

Treatment alternatives for leukemia

Treatment depends on a ton of components like kind of leukemia, general wellbeing and age.

  • Chemotherapy

This is the real type of treatment for leukemia. The medications are utilized to kill the tumor cells. You may have a pill or infusion into your vein contingent upon the sort of leukemia you have.

  • Radiation Therapy

X-beams or other means of high energy beams are utilized to destroy the cells of leukemia and stop their development.

  • Transplant of stem cells

The purpose of this kind of methodology is to devastate the cells in your bone marrow including leukemia cell and replace them with healthier cells.

Survival rates of leukemia patients

Regardless of the medical advancement, the treatment of leukemia is as yet an outstanding issue in recent times. Modern-day prescription does not hold the cure for leukemia and medicinal medications accessible nowadays give separated outcomes.

Survival rates rely upon the promptitude of analysis, the kind of treatment and the patients’ responsiveness to particular tumor treatments and medicines. In spite of the fact that leukemia can’t generally be defeated entirely, the progression of the illness can be slowed down.

In this way, the future of patients with leukemia has risen significantly over the most recent three decades.  The treatment of leukemia is engaged towards accomplishing a total reduction in negligible symptoms.

Remitting from leukemia alludes to non appearance of traces leukemia at the cell level. Patients who display no proof of threatening cell action after finishing the treatment of leukemia are thought to be entirely cured.

Source of information


The author has done masters in Biochemistry from the University of Karachi and a freelance content writer by profession. Writing is her passion, and her degree helped her a lot to write about health-related topics. She is the author of a research paper. The author conducted research on the patients of cardiac arrest.

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