There are several repairing mechanisms out there to maintain the integrity of the genome and exome. All of these different techniques are controlled through proteins which are highly responsible for all the enzymatic activities.
It may include the identifications of cell breakage, propagation of damaged signals, analyzing further factors affecting protein and resolving the losses related to genetic data and information.
Here we will be discussing a method that involves RNA that is used to repair the DNA. It would help us to explore new findings and challenges for the same research purpose in which protein is only responsible for repairing the damage caused to DNA. It would really help us to derive a new side of repairing DNA through the RNA.
What is the role of RNA?
RNA has an integral role in different cellular pathways, but it never took part in the repairing process of DNA until some time back. Different researchers claimed to come up with their successful projects and theories where they demonstrated an exclusive role of RNA-processing enzymes and its associated molecules for the successful repair of DNA. But apart from all this research work, the effectiveness of damage-related RNAs and their different methodologies remain unknown to people.
How DNA goes under damage?
Our DNA repeatedly goes under the damages caused by several harsh environmental and chemical substances that include ionizing radiations, ultraviolet rays that attack our daily food consumption, etc. The damage process of DNA involves a complex signaling method that involves basic three steps. The first step is the remodeling of chromatic modification; the second step is the repairing of a protein involved in the enzymatic activities along with the propagation of the signals. The third step is the binary decision-making process involved in this whole process.
How is RNA found in the repairing of DNA?
As per earlier studies, it has been assumed that DNA repair involves proteins only with the help of enzymatic reactions to facilitate the repairing of the cell and the propagation of different signals. But, now things have much evolved and RNA is abundantly found in the implications of DDR. Its job is to involve the massive amount of concentrated small RNA biogenesis enzymes.
Similarly, it has also identified a definite type of small RNA. The involvement of an RNA species in DDR can exist because of different scenarios like in fungi, yeast or plants. It was first found in the fungus plant where small RNAs and the DDR were reported.
This kind of mechanism really helps in repairing the break itself. Some of the research reports also demonstrated that RNA molecules may be used as templates or prototypes for DNA repair in the yeast. Some of the main characteristics are as follows:
- One of the major alternative strategies which are used to investigate the existence of small RNAs that produce the DNA damage involved the isolation of the small RNA from the cells and delivery of that RNA into the cells. It lacks the ability to produce them.
- The RNA biogenesis systematic structure has an effective role in the DNA damage repair that is present outside of the canonical RNA-mediated translational repression.
- The RNA molecules have been observed in the closeness of DNA breaks and have been implicated in the DNA repair response.
- This kind of phenomena has been observed in many similar species, which indicates a natural conserved mechanism.
The recent advancement in detailed sequencing techniques has made it possible to conduct the refined and filtered experiments leading to the involvement of human small RNA processing structure in DDR.
There are different model systems of the RNAs involved in the repairing process in different model systems which include plant-based RNAs, qiRNAs, hc-RNAs, etc.
Recent research studies have shown one of the very first proofs of an RNA-templated repair mechanism present in the yeast and human cells. It also demonstrated the formation of RNA: DNA that formulates the idea of DNA damage showing a strong linkage between RNA and DNA repair.