With more than 3 million patients, COVID-19 is the worst pandemic of the modern industrialized era but what’s even worse is lack of any detailed data regarding causes, treatment and steps to control it. This makes it impossible to predict the final number of people affected by it and estimating the number of deaths. There are various surveys and researches conducted to analyze the threat.
According to a Chinese survey, patients showed different symptoms and faced different health problems. The most widely recognized manifestations were fever (43.8% on affirmation and 88.7% during hospitalization) and heck (67.8%). Loose bowels were unprecedented (3.8%). The middle hatching time frame was 4 days (interquartile go, 2 to 7).
On affirmation, ground-glass haziness was the most widely recognized radiologic finding on chest registered tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT variation from the norm was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with non-severe infection and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with extreme ailment. Lymphocytopenia was available in 83.2% of the patients on affirmation.
Following is the conclusion of researches and surveys done to find which groups of people are more vulnerable to be affected by the novel virus, classified on the basis of different factors:
In China, according to study, the median age of the patients was 47 years. Among the confirmed cases, majority was aged 30-79 years (86.6%). The essential composite end point happened in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who experienced intrusive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% died.
Death rate of the patients aged above 80% was 14.8%. 8% of the patients aged in their 70s died. 60-69 years old’s death rate remained at 3.6%, 50-59 years old at 1.3%, 40-49 years old at 0.4%, 30-39 years old at 0.2%, 20-29 years old at 0.2%, 10-19 years old at 0.2% and no fatalities were reported under 10 years of aged affectees.
According to data provided by New York City Health, the maximum number of deaths were aged 75+, a share of 47.7%. 65-64 years age group at 24.6%, 45-64 years age group at 23.1%, 18-44 years age group at 4.5% and 0-17 years old at 0.04%; clearly showing aged people to be more vulnerable.
Italy reported similar results. stats showed their death rate to be 28.9% for patients in the 80s age group; 24.6% for 90 and older; 24.1% death rate of affectees aged between 70 and 79; 9.8% for patients aged in 60s; 2.5% for 50s; 0.9% for 40s and 0.3% for 30s.
The minimum death rate was reported for teens i.e. 0% followed by age group 20-29 years at the rate of 0.1%.
According to Chinese research figures, 58.1% of the patients were male and the remaining 41.9% were females. The death rate of men was observed to be 4.7% of the confirmed cases and 2.8% of all cases. On the other hand, fatality rate for women was 2.8% of the confirmed cases and 1.7% of all cases.
According to data provided by New York City Health, 61.8% share of deaths was males’ and the remaining 38.2% was females’; with a share of men in their own category standing at 62.2% and women at 37.8% of their own category. Although not enough evidence was found to prove whether more men or more women are infected by the virus, the mortality rate is greater in men.
In Italy, the number of cases involved 49% male and 51% females which is dissimilar to other countries’ statistics. However, the death rate proved to be quite similar as deaths were reported as 63% for males and 37% for females which in confirmed cases shrunk to 17.1% and 9.3% respectively. Thus, men are 50% more likely to die once affected by virus
Pre-existing Medical Conditions:
Researches concluded that the vulnerability is also dependent on the pre-existing medical conditions. Stats show that death rate in people with cardiovascular disease at 13.2% of confirmed cases (10.5.% of all cases); people suffering from diabetes at 9.2% of confirmed cases (7.3% of all cases); share of deaths patients who were already suffering from chronic respiratory disease remained at 8.0% of confirmed cases (6.3% of all cases); death rate of patients of cancer was noted at 7.6% of confirmed cases (5.6% of all cases); 8.4% of confirmed cases of patients already suffering from hypertension died (6.0% of all cases).
- People who had an organ transplant.
- Patients who had chemotherapy or any antibody treatment.
- Those taking any medication affecting the immune system.
- People who are very obese.
- People suffering from conditions affecting nerves.
- Diabetes patients.
- Suffering from high blood pressure.
- Having a chronic kidney disease.
Recently, a study was conducted in Wuhan to test whether pregnancy is a factor increasing or decreasing risks of falling victim to COVID-19. The study involved only 9 participants. Each of the nine patients had a cesarean segment in their third trimester. Seven patients gave a fever.
Different manifestations, including heck (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and discomfort (in two), were likewise watched. Fetal pain was checked in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 10⁹ cells per L). Three patients had expanded aminotransferase focuses. None of the patients created extreme COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020.
Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was seen in infants. Every one of the nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8–9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9–10. Amniotic liquid, rope blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk tests from six patients were tried for SARS-CoV-2, and all examples tried negative for the infection; proving pregnancy not be causing any increased risks.
Another study in New York City, involving 43 participants, was also conducted and the results were almost the same, concluding no difference in vulnerability between pregnant and non-pregnant women.
But due to very smaller number of participants, this study is not believed to be a good scientific evidence and further study is required.
In France, only 5.3 percent of the COVID-19 patients were smokers, while 25.4 percent of the general population smoke regularly.
Another French study conducted by the Pasteur Institute supports the argument that smokers are less vulnerable to be attacked by the virus.
This study concluded that smokers are 4 times less likely to be affected by the virus. 700 participants were involved in the study and only 7.2% of those infected were smokers whereas 28% (i.e. four times) were non-smokers.
But some other studies contradict, explaining that smoking seriously damages the respiratory system and hence increasing the risk. WHO also declares smokers to be at more risk. This argument was also proved by a Chinese research which proved that smokers are 14 times more likely to be affected by the coronavirus. Thus, currently no reliable evidence is present in either of the cases.
It has been 4 months and more than 3.2 million people have been affected by COVID-19 worldwide with maximum cases in USA. However, 1 million people have recovered and more than 0.2 million people have died by now. Moreover, there’s no surety regarding the actual number of victims.