Antibiotic resistance seems to be a major obstacle in modern medicine. It led to a crisis all around the world forcing the researchers to find solutions. One clinical trial is, however, breaking this superbug barrier.
Bacteria can lead to a number of infections. Most of the times, the best way to treat these infections is by using antibiotic drugs.
However, in many cases, the bacteria become resistant to many antibiotics. The misuse or overuse of the antibiotics by the people led to an exacerbation of this drug resistance.
Due to the gravity of this situation, the WHO came up with a priority list. This list included all the antibiotic-resistant bacteria against which new drugs were needed.
A new phase II randomized trial is attempting to eradicate this global crisis for good. It has, in fact, come one step closer to its mission recently. The supervisors of these trials are the researchers belonging to Shionogi Inc. This is a pharmaceutical company present in Osaka, Japan.
The results of this study are present in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. They suggest that a newer antibiotic can be effective in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). It can do so by fighting the stubborn species of gram-negative bacteria.
The New Drug is Well-tolerated and Highly Effective
This trial was actually an effort by the Food and Drug Administration to stimulate antibiotic development. It involved 448 adult participants.
All the participants were suffering from a complicated UTI or uncomplicated pyelonephritis.
The researchers randomly assigned some of these participants to take either a standard antibiotic imipenem-cilastatin. They directed the others to consume the new antibiotic cefiderocol. The participants used their respective medicines thrice every day for one to two weeks.
Almost three hundred people consumed cefiderocol as compared to 148 using imipenem-cilastatin. 252 out of the 300 participants taking the new drug suffered from a gram-negative bacterial infection.
The scientists saw that cefiderocol was equally effective as imipenem-cilastatin. Both of these drugs also had an equal tolerance level. The efficacy rate of cefiderocol was very high.
Both medicines led to a similar number of adverse events. Some of the most common adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders. For example, most of the patients suffered from constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and pain in the abdomen.
How does this Drug Attack Bacteria
The researchers explained that this new drug is able to bypass all three mechanisms of resistance.
The two solid outer membranes that do not allow antibiotics to penetrate and the porin channels are two of them.
Cefiderocol is just like a Trojan horse. It utilizes new mechanisms of cell entry and takes benefit of the bacteria’s need for iron to live.
The scientists explained what happens during an acute infection to provide further clarifications.
They said that during an acute infection, your immune system tends to create an iron-poor environment. In response to this, the bacteria increase their uptake of iron.
The success of this new trial indicates that cefiderocol will be a great addition to the drugs available to fight bacteria.
The drug is equally safe and tolerable in the populations of older people. It even works for old people with comorbid situations and a broad range of multi-drug resistant microbes.
The trial proves that cefiderocol is a novel approach to overcome resistance due to gram-negative bacteria. However, experts also suggest further testing to check its efficacy in treating other bacterial infections.
There are some trials going on for pneumonia. This includes ventilator-associated pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. This trial may provide additional information about the efficacy of cefiderocol.